The human body is literally a protein factory. Proteins comprise 20% of our total body mass. We are made of protein from our bones to our muscles, arteries and veins, skin, hair and fingernails. Our heart, brain, liver, kidneys and lungs are built of tissue made of proteins. To be short of protein is to be lacking in the very substance of life. Protein plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes and amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Proteins help carry the oxygen that reddens our blood. In the form of enzymes, proteins digest our food, synthesize essential substances and break down waste products for elimination. When fat and carbohydrates are insufficient, proteins produce the energy we need for life.

Here is a summary of many, but not all of the amazing properties of each amino acid, all present in SanoBe Superfoods Peanut Butter.

SanoBe Superfoods Peanut Butter contains 19 of the 20 amino acids known to be utilized by the body and they are in a balanced and easy to absorb and utilize ratio to meet the body’s needs.

  • Helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy eliminates excess toxins from the liver.
  • Has been shown to help protect cells from being damaged during intense aerobic activity, when the body cannibalizes muscle protein to help produce energy.
  • Is crucial for preserving balanced levels of nitrogen and glucose in the body, which it does through a series of chemical actions called the alanine cycle. During the alanine cycle, any excess amino acids (proteins) in cells or tissues are transferred to a receptor molecule called pyruvate, which is produced by the breakdown of glucose. The pyruvate is then converted to alanine and transferred to the liver. The liver extracts nitrogen from alanine and converts some of it back into pyruvate, which can then be used to produce more glucose. Any excess nitrogen is then converted into urea and passed out of the body during urination. This cycle, glucose— pyruvate—alanine—pyruvate—glucose, helps supply the body with the energy it needs to support cellular life. It also ensures that a constant supply of pyruvate is available to allow the synthesis of glucose and amino acids in the body.
  • Plays a key role in maintaining glucose levels and thus energy supplies in the body.
  • May help regulate blood sugar. Research has found that for people with insulin-dependent diabetes, taking an oral dose of l-alanine effectively prevents nighttime hypoglycemia.
Aspartic Acid
  • Is found in high levels throughout the human body, especially in the brain
  • Promotes healthy metabolism
  • Treats fatigue and depression by generating cellular energy.
  • Plays important role in the Krebs (sleep) cycle, during which other amino acids are being produced.
  • Moves the coenzyme NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) molecules from the main body of the cell to its mitochondria, where it is used to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel that powers all cellular activity. In short, the more NADH a cell has, the more chemical fuel it produces and the more energy you have to get through your day.
  • Helps transport minerals needed to for healthy RNA and DNA to the cells and strengthens the immune system by promoting increased production of immunoglobulins and antibodies (immune system proteins).
  • Keeps your mind sharp by increasing concentrations of NADH in the brain, which is thought to boost the production of neurotransmitters and chemicals needed for normal mental functioning. It also removes excess toxins from the cells.
  • Can help protect the liver from some drug toxicity and the body from radiation.
  • Can help form the ribonucleotides that assist production of DNA and RNA and aids energy production from carbohydrate
  • May help improve the function of the immune system.
  • May play a role in protecting against toxins and neural and brain disorders.
  • Reportedly helps treat chronic
  • Can be easily converted to glucose when demand for glucose exceeds supply.
  • Is found in dairy, beef, poultry, sugar cane, molasses, sprouting seeds, oat flakes, luncheon meats, sausage meat, wild game, avocado, asparagus.
Glutamic Acid
  • Functions as an important neurotransmitter,
  • A metabolic intermediate in the krebs cycle,
  • Helps in the elimination of toxic ammonia from the body.
  • Is responsible for one of the human senses of taste, termed umami, adding to the classical taste sensations of sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Umami applies to the sensation of savoriness, the detection of glutamates in such foods as meats, cheese and other protein- heavy foods. Beyond its practical value, taste adds to the human enjoyment of creation, joining such diverse senses as being able to see various colors, hear different sounds, smell a vast array of odors and so forth. Such senses allow interaction with nature and touch upon the inner aspect of people. As a source for umami, MSG, the sodium salt of glutamic acid, is used to enhance the flavor of foods.
  • is an excitatory neurotransmitter that increases the firing of neurons in the central nervous system. It is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It is converted into either glutamine or Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), two other amino acids that help pass messages to the brain.
  • Glutamic acid is important in the metabolism of sugars and fats and aids in the transportation of potassium into the spinal fluid and across blood-brain barrier. Although it does not pass the blood- brain barrier as readily as glutamine does, it is found at high levels in the blood and may infiltrate the brain in small amounts. The brain can use glutamic acid as fuel.
  • Glutamic acid helps to correct personality disorders and is useful in treating childhood behavioral disorders.
  • It is used in the treatment of epilepsy, mental retardation, muscular dystrophy, ulcers and hypoglycemic coma, a complication of insulin treatment for diabetes.
  • It is a component of folate (folic acid), a B vitamin that helps the body break down amino acids.
  • Used to help create muscle tissue and convert glucose into energy.
  • Essential to maintaining healthy central nervous and digestive systems
  • Has recently been shown to provide protection via antioxidantsfrom some types of cancer.
  • Glycine is used in the body to help construct normal DNA and RNA strands—the genetic material needed for proper cellular function and formation.
  • It helps prevent the breakdown of muscle by boosting the body’s levels of creatine, a compound that helps build muscle mass.
  • High concentrations of glycine are found not only in the muscles, but in the skin and other connective tissues as well. Almost 1/3 of collagen, which keeps the skin and connective tissue firm and flexible, is composed of glycine. (High amounts of glycine are also found in gelatin, which is a form of denatured collagen.)
  • Without glycine the body would not be able to repair damaged tissues; the skin would become slack as it succumbed to UV rays, oxidation and free radical damage and wounds would never heal.
  • Glycine is considered a glucogenic amino acid, which means it helps supply the body with glucose needed for energy.
  • It helps regulate blood sugar levels and thus glycine supplementation may be useful for treating symptoms characterized by low energy and fatigue, such as hypoglycemia, anemia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Glycine is essential for a healthy, normally functioning digestive system. It helps regulate the synthesis of the bile acid used to digest fats and is included in many commercial gastric antacid agents
  • Glycine is necessary for central nervous system function. Research has shown that this amino acid can help inhibit the neurotransmitters that cause seizure activity, hyperactivity and manic (bipolar) depression. Glycine can also be converted to another neurotransmitter, serine, as needed and may be beneficial in the management of schizophrenia. In one study, twenty-two schizophrenic patients, who did not initially respond to traditional treatments, added glycine to their ongoing antipsychotic medication and found that it significantly reduced their symptoms. Glycine intake among the participants ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily (0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight). More research concerning the effects of glycine on schizophrenia is underway.
  • Studies have shown that glycine also helps improve memory retrieval loss in those that suffer from a wide variety of sleep depriving conditions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, jet lag and overwork.
  • Results from preliminary studies of glycine as a potential treatment for cancer have been promising and suggest that it may help prevent the development of cancerous tumors and melanoma. In laboratory mice, dietary glycine prevented tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis, the process by which tumors develop their own blood supply.
  • Glycine also seems to play a role in keeping the prostate healthy. In one study, glycine was shown to help reduce the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia in men.
  • High-protein foods, such as fish, meat, beans, milk and cheese, are the best dietary sources of glycine. Glycine is also available in capsule and powder forms and as part of many combination amino acid supplements. There have been no toxic effects associated with glycine, although some people have reported that taking this supplement causes stomach upset.
Isoleucine *
  • An amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue and encourage clotting at the site of injury. This amino acid is especially important to serious athletes and body builders because its primary function in the body is to boost energy and help the body recover from strenuous physical activity.
  • Is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). There are three branched-chain amino acids in the body, isoleucine, valine and leucine and all of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Isoleucine is actually broken down for energy within the muscle tissue. Is also keeps energy levels stable by helping to regulate blood sugar
  • A deficiency of isoleucine produces symptoms similar to those of hypoglycemia and may include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, depression, confusion and irritability.
Leucine *
  • Works with the amino acids isoleucine and valine to repair muscles, regulate blood sugar and provide the body with energy
  • Increases production of growth hormones
  • Helps burn visceral fat, which is located in the deepest layers of the body and the least responsive to dieting and exercise.
  • Leucine, isoleucine and valine are branched-chain amino acids (bcaas) and all three of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Leucine is the most effective bcaa for preventing muscle loss because it breaks down and is converted to glucose more quickly than isoleucine and valine. Increased glucose supplies prevent the body’s cannibalization of muscle for energy during intense workouts, so it is no surprise that this amino acid supplement is popular among professional body builders promotes the healing of bones, skin and muscle tissue after traumatic injury and is often recommended for those recovering from surgery.
  • Leucine helps to regulate blood sugar because it is so easily converted to glucose.
  • A deficiency of leucine produces symptoms similar to those of hypoglycemia, which may include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, depression, confusion and irritability.
  • Natural sources of leucine include brown rice, beans, meat, nuts, soy flour and whole wheat.
  • People who exercise a lot, have a low-protein diet, or are seriously trying to build muscle mass should consider leucine supplementation. Leucine is also available in stand-alone supplemental form, but should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine andvaline. The ideal balance is 2 milligrams of leucine and valine for each 1 milligram of isoleucine. Combination supplements that provide all three of the BCAAs may be more convenient.
Lysine *
  • Lysine is an essential amino acid that is well known for its antiviral properties. It helps prevent outbreaks of herpes and cold sores and is needed for hormone production and the growth as well as maintenance of bones in both children and adults.
  • Is involved in the production off antibodies for a strong, healthy immune system, which may be part of the reason it is so effective at fighting herpes viruses. helps prevent the body’s absorption of the amino acid arginine, which the herpes virus must have in order to replicate. Studies have shown that taking supplemental L-lysine in combination with vitamin C and flavonoids can effectively fight and/or prevent herpes outbreaks. Results of a six-month trial involving more than 50 people indicate that lysine is far more effective than a placebo in preventing cold sores.
  • Lysine supplements have also been used to prevent eruptions of shingles, a blistering condition that is caused by the herpes varicella-zoster. Lysine also helps herpes and cold sores heal more quickly.
  • Promotes the formation of both collagen and muscle protein and may help speed recovery from surgery and sports injuries as well. Good sources of lysine include cheese, eggs, fish, lima beans, milk, potatoes, red meat, soy products and yeast.
  • Most people get enough lysine from their diet, but there have been recorded cases of lysine deficiency, particularly in those that have a low-protein diet or eating disorder. A lysine deficiency may include symptoms of bloodshot eyes, hair loss, an inability to concentrate, irritability, lack of energy, poor appetite, reproductive disorders, retarded growth and weight loss.
Methionine *
  • Methionine is an essential amino acid that helps the body process and eliminate fat.
  • It contains sulfur, a substance that is required for the production of the body’s most abundant natural antioxidant, glutathione.
  • The body also needs plenty of methionine to produce two other sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and taurine, which help the body eliminate toxins, build strong, healthy tissues and promote cardiovascular health.
  • Methionine is a lipotropic, or a chemical substance that helps the liver process fats (lipids). Other lipotropics includecholine, inositoland betaine (trimethylglycine), all of which help prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver and thus ensure normal liver function, which is essential for the elimination of toxins from the body.
  • Methionine also supports liver function by regulating glutathione supplies; glutathione is needed to help neutralize toxins in the liver.
  • Methionine is needed to make creatine, a nutrient naturally found primarily in muscle tissue that provides the energy our muscles need to move and has been found to boost athletic performance during short, intense workouts. Creatine is necessary for all muscular function and thus supports normal functioning of the heart and circulatory system.
  • Methionine is essential for the formation of healthy collagen used to form skin, nails and connective tissue, and helps reduce the level of inflammatory histamines in the body.
  • People with conditions linked to excessive histamine production, such as arthritis and chronic allergies, may benefit from methionine supplementation.
  • May also help treat symptoms of pancreatitis and Parkinson’s disease.
  • It has also been found to be helpful for treatment of urinary tract infections; like cranberry, methionine helps prevent bacteria from sticking to and proliferating in the walls of the urinary tract.
  • Recently a form of methionine supplement called SAMe (S- adenosylmethionine) has become available. Research has shown that SAMe is effective for treatment of arthritis and some forms of depression. The average dose is 400 milligrams three times daily and it works best when taken with a B-complex vitamin. You can also obtain SAMe at any local pharmacy or health food store.
  • Is an essential vitamin, which means it must be obtained through dietary sources. It is found in a variety of natural food sources.
  • including beans, eggs, fish, garlic, lentils, meat, onions, soybeans, seeds and yogurt.
Phenylalanine *
  • An essential amino acid that is needed for normal functioning of the central nervous system
  • Has been used successfully to help control symptoms of depression and chronic pain, as well as other diseases linked to a malfunctioning central nervous system.
  • Is especially effective for treating brain disorders because it is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier formed by the red blood cells and the glia of the brain that protects the brain from any toxins, bacteria and viruses, etc., that are circulating through the bloodstream. Only chemicals that are able to cross this barrier can directly affect brain function.
  • The body needs phenylalanine to make epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine, three neurotransmitters that basically control the way you perceive and interact with your environment.
  • Phenylalanine supplementation may help you feel happier, less hungry and more alert.
  • Used to treat chronic pain and improve memory and concentration recent research indicates that phenylalanine, which aids in melatonin production, may be effective for treatment of vitiligo, a condition that causes white patches on the skin. Subjects treated by these researchers took 50 to 100 milligrams oral l- phenylalanine and applied topical 10 percent phenylalanine gel each day and reported an average improvement rate of 83 percent.
  • There are three different kinds of phenylalanine: l-phenylalanine, d-phenylalanine and dl-phenylalanine. Each type of phenylalanine is used to treat different symptoms. D- phenylalanine is more effective for controlling pain, while l- phenylalanine is more effective for regulating mood, appetite and mental alertness; dl-phenylalanine affects both pain sensitivity and mental state.
  • People who suffer from arthritis, obesity, severe menstrual cramps or mild depression may want to speak to their doctor about trying phenylalanine supplementation. Phenylalanine supplements come in capsule, tablet and powder form.
  • Phenylalanine has also been used to treat Parkinson’s disease and
  • Schizophrenia, but anyone with a serious health condition should not take any form of supplementation without first consulting their physician about proper dosage and possible side effects.
  • Serine is derived from the amino acid glycine. It is important to overall good health, both physical and mental.
  • is especially important to proper functioning of the brain and central nervous system.
  • Serine helps form the phospholipids needed to make every cell in your body.
  • is involved in the function of RNA and DNA, fat and fatty acid metabolism, muscle formation and the maintenance of a healthy immune system.
  • The proteins used to form the brain, as well as the protective myelin sheaths that cover the nerves, contain serine. Without serine, the myelin sheaths could fray and become less efficient at delivering messages between the brain and nerve endings in the body, essentially short circuiting mental function.
  • is needed to produce tryptophan, an amino acid that is used to make serotonin, a mood-determining brain chemical. Both serotonin and tryptophan shortages have been linked to depression, insomnia, confusion and anxiety.
  • Research suggests that low levels of serine may contribute tochronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM).
  • Serine helps produce immunoglobulins and antibodies for a strong immune system,
  • Aids in the absorption of creatine, a substance made from amino acids that helps build and maintain all the muscles in the body, including the heart.
Threonine *
  • Promotes normal growth by helping to maintain the proper protein balance in the body.
  • Supports cardiovascular, liver, central nervous and immune system function.
  • Is needed to create glycine andserine, two amino acids that are necessary for the production of collagen, elastin and muscle tissue.
  • Helps keep connective tissues and muscles throughout the body strong and elastic, including the heart, where it is found in significant amounts.
  • Helps build strong bones and tooth enamel
  • May speed wound healing or recovery from injury.
  • Combines with the amino acids aspartic acidand methione to help the liver with lipotropic function, or the digestion of fats and fatty acids. Without enough threonine in the body, fats could build up in the liver and ultimately cause liver failure.
  • Supports the immune system by aiding in the production of antibodies and because it is found largely in the central nervous system, may be helpful in treating some types of depression.
  • Supplementation may also be useful for treatment of lou gehrig’s disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), because it increases glycine levels in the central nervous system (administering glycine is ineffective, since it cannot cross into the central nervous system).
  • Research indicates that symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), another disease that affects the nerve and muscle function, may be lessened with threonine supplementation. One 1992 study showed that 7.5 grams of threonine taken daily decreased spasticity among study participants.
  • Is a non-essential amino acid that helps regulate mood and stimulates the nervous system.
  • Helps speed up the metabolism.
  • Treats conditions characterized by chronic fatigue.
  • Makes many important brain chemicals that help regulate appetite, pain sensitivity and the body’s response to stress
  • Aids in normal functioning of the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands—low levels of tyrosine may lead to hypothyroidism, low blood pressure, chronic fatigue and sluggish metabolism.
  • The body needs both tyrosine and the essential amino acidphenylalanine to make epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine, three neurotransmitters that basically control the way you perceive and interact with your environment. Without adequate amounts of phenylalanine, the body can’t manufacture its own supply of tyrosine; without adequate amounts of tyrosine, the body cannot metabolize phenylalanine. A shortage of either of these amino acids could leave you vulnerable to a host of mental disorders, including anxiety, depression, low libido and chronic fatigue.
  • Tyrosine supplements, especially when combined with 5-htp (5- hydroxy-tryptophan) supplements, have been used successfully to treat depression.
  • Tyrosine supplementation has also been used for treatment of allergies, headaches, Parkinson’s disease and drug withdrawal.
Valine *
  • Valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) that works with the other two BCAAs, isoleucine andleucine, to promote normal growth, repair tissues, regulate blood sugar and provide the body with energy.
  • Helps stimulate the central nervous system and is needed for proper mental functioning.
  • Helps prevent the breakdown of muscle by supplying the muscles with extra glucose for energy production during intense physical activity.
  • Helps remove potentially toxic excess nitrogen from the liver and is able to transport nitrogen to other tissues in the body as needed.
  • May help treat liver and gallbladder disease, as well as damage to these organs caused by alcoholism and drug abuse.
  • Valine may help treat or even reverse hepatic encephalopathy, or alcohol-related brain damage.
  • A deficiency of valine may also affect the myelin covering of the nerves and cause degenerative neurological conditions.
  • People that exercise a lot, have a low-protein diet, or are seriously trying to build muscle mass should consider valine supplementation. Valine is available in stand-alone supplemental form, but should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine and leucine. The ideal balance is 2 milligrams of leucine and valine for each 1 milligram of isoleucine. Combination supplements that provide all three of the BCAAs may be more convenient.
  • An excessively high intake of valine may cause a skin crawling sensation and even hallucinations.
  • Too much valine in the diet can also disrupt liver and kidney function and increase the amount of ammonia in the body. People with impaired liver or kidney function should not take isoleucine without first consulting a physician, as large doses of amino acids may aggravate these conditions.
* Essential Amino Acids

These are the nine amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and therefore must be supplied by the diet.